Before buying a digital camera, consider for what purpose you will use it. If you need to illustrate your page on the Internet, it will be enough the camera with low resolution. But if you’re going to make prints from obtained images, to receive high-quality photos, you will need a camera with high resolution. Four main factors have a crucial impact on your digital camera:
- Method of operation of CCD
- An optical device of the camera
- Software that “works” with the image.
Resolution is determined by the number of light-sensitive diodes on the surface of the CCD. For example, if the manual says that it has a resolution of 1600X1200 pixels, this means that the CCD has about 2 million diodes on its surface. Each of three different diodes on the surface of the matrix can write data about one of the primary colors. In order to obtain data about the color of each pixel, we need to know information about the illumination of at least three diodes. This reduces the actual number of pixels in a three-fold. Instead it the software is used that allows you to equate the number of pixels and the number of diodes.
Although the statement “the more pixels, the higher the resolution, the better the image” in the main is true, however, other factors have a significant impact on the quality of the “picture”. So it is very important the quality of the production of the CCDs. The more qualitative made the matrix, the less it will have broken diodes (the size of one diode is about 7.5 microns), which will directly affect the quality of photos.
Unfortunately, the quality of the CCD cannot be described by any numbers or categories, so only a careful comparison of different models guarantees the purchase of the best camera. Focus on the field, clarity of the visible image. If you are satisfied with the quality of the image, then test the camera under different lighting conditions. Ask also, if possible, to print the captured image; it will give you more information about the CCD.
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The digital photo cannot be comparable to the analog photo (which uses slides or negatives). From a technological point of view it is rather closer to the video shooting, which receives an image at every moment of time.
Let’s take a look at how the analog camera operates.
In simple terms, the analog camera consists of the system of lens, aperture and shutter; the light, having focused in the objective-glass, passing through the diaphragm at a time until the shutter is open, falls on a photosensitive film. Under the influence of photochemical processes the image is “recorded” on film and in the future it can be restored by developing.
Although digital cameras look like as analog, they use different principles of operation. Both cameras have the system of lens, aperture and shutter, but recording methods differ radically. The digital camera stores images in digital format on the special media. Closer examination helps to understand the difference in working methods.
The heart of a digital camera is CCD (charge coupled device) hidden behind the diaphragm and consists of a photosensitive semiconductor elements made from a variety of silicon diodes. When the light reaches the CCD, it charges each of the elements – pixels individually.
This charge in the future corresponds to an electric pulse, and so we get the data in digital form about illumination of each pixel. Since it is impossible to record all information about the whole image, but in future it is processed by software to recover lost data and recorded on magnetic media. Thus, the digital photography is a combination of CCD sensor, software and memory cards, replacing the film in the analog camera.
CCD matrix is not greater than the nail on the finger, and contains several millions of light-sensitive diodes, located on the surface of the matrix in the form of columns. Since the matrix responds only to the brightness, the digital camera can produce only black and white. However, there is a way to capture all the colors of the image by using different color filters in the lens: red, green, blue, or a combination of colors that gives the most realistic picture.
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Digital cameras allow even novice users to implement the ideal opportunities of macro mode. Most digital cameras in the “macro” mode are able to shoot from close distances, up to 1-5 cm. Therefore, the photographer can capture sufficiently close-up small objects – flowers, insects, coins…
Shooting at very close range – is one of the spectacular creative techniques even for a beginner. A little experience, a little patience – and you get a variety of topics and very showy images. Having peered carefully into the natural world up close, you can capture the extraordinary scenes with well developed fine details and rich texture of objects. These shots usually cause a great interest in the audience.
It is distinguished general, medium and large plans shooting. The general plan is suitable, for example, when working on the scenery, the average – shooting a person in full-length and portraits are usually done close-up. Especially close-up plan is rarely applied; it is widespread primarily in the cinema. It allows you to capture parts of the face, most of all – the eyes.
More close-up shooting belongs to the macro shooting. In this case the object is photographed almost life-size, i.e. the linear dimension of the optical image is close to the linear size of the object. At the same time on the print, made, of course, with zoom, you can see much more detail than in the observation of the object with the usual distance. The optimum distance is considered to be equal to an average of 250 mm.
No doubt, the digital camera will fit for very close-up shooting. Most models are usually fitted with a special mode that allows you to photograph enlarged plan (from a distance of several centimeters) without special tools. Some cameras have even two sub-bands – “macro” and “super macro”.
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